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Issue Brief


U.S. Presidential Candidate Spending Analysis – Mitt Romney
Total Net Spending Agenda: -$353.005 billion (savings)

April 25, 2012












U.S. Presidential Candidate Spending Analysis – Mitt Romney
Total Net Spending Agenda: -$353.005 billion (savings)

 

Economy, Transportation, and Infrastructure: -$4.3 billion (savings)

A. Repeal Dodd-Frank Act:

“As president, Mitt Romney will also seek to repeal Dodd-Frank and replace it with a streamlined regulatory framework.”

Believe in America: Mitt Romney’s Plan for Jobs and Economic Growth, page 59

Cost: -$4.3 billion (-$21.5 billion over five years).

Source: Statement by Douglas W. Elmendorf, Director, Congressional Budget Office (CBO), before the Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, Committee on Financial Services, U.S. House of Representatives, March 30, 2011.

http://www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/121xx/doc12120/03-29-Dodd-Frank.pdf

 

B. Reform Sarbanes-Oxley Act:

“[…] [T]he Sarbanes-Oxley law passed in the wake of the accounting scandals of the early 2000s should also be modified as part of any financial reform…. Romney will seek to amend the law to remove unreasonable burdens on mid-size companies.”

Believe in America: Mitt Romney’s Plan for Jobs and Economic Growth, page 60

Cost: Unknown.

Note: The Sarbanes-Oxley Act was passed in the 107th Congress. The bill created the Standard-Setting Body and the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board to establish and regulate, respectively, national standards for the accounting industry. Budget of the U.S. Government, Fiscal Year 2013, Appendix, page 1406,

(http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/budget/fy2013/assets/oia.pdf), requests $265 million in Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 for these entities. Due to the lack of detail in Governor Romney’s plan, NTUF is unable to determine the cost or savings of this proposal.

 

C. Create Trans-Pacific Trading Partnership (TPP):

“The Trans-Pacific Partnership also remains critically important. Such an agreement would open U.S. access to the rapidly expanding Malaysian and Vietnamese markets, provide a dramatic geopolitical and economic bulwark against China, and serve as both a foundation from which to promote the opening of markets throughout Asia and a template for future multilateral agreements. If the Obama administration stalls the TPP in the run-up to the 2012 election, a Romney administration will move to complete negotiations at the earliest possible date.”

Believe in America: Mitt Romney’s Plan for Jobs and Economic Growth, page 76

Cost: Unknown.

Note: The primary impact of free trade proposals is generally on federal revenues. Depending on the terms of the agreement, there may be some outlay effects as well. For example, CBO projects that H.R. 3080, the United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act (112th Congress), “would reduce revenues by $31 million in 2012 and by about $7.0 billion over the 2012-2021 period. CBO estimates that enacting H.R. 3080 would increase direct spending by $53 million in 2012 but would decrease direct spending by about $7.0 billion over the 2012-2021 period.… Further, CBO estimates that implementing the legislation would cost $7 million over the 2012-2016 period, assuming the availability of appropriated funds.”

http://www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/124xx/doc12466/hr3080.pdf

 

D. Create Reagan Economic Zone:

“…[T]here is an opportunity to pursue a game-changing multilateral agreement among like-minded nations genuinely committed to the principles of open markets. As president, Mitt Romney will pursue the formation of a ‘Reagan Economic Zone.’ This zone would codify the principles of free trade at the international level and place the issues now hindering trade in services and intellectual property, crucial to American prosperity and that of other developed nations, at the center of the discussion.”

Believe in America: Mitt Romney’s Plan for Jobs and Economic Growth, page 76

Cost: Unknown.

Note: See explanatory note above.

 

E. Initiate More Customs Enforcement:

“We can do a far better job of keeping counterfeit goods out of our country and enforcing the intellectual property protections that we already have in place. In some locations this may simply entail increasing the frequency of inspections or ramping up fines and punishments.”

Believe in America: Mitt Romney’s Plan for Jobs and Economic Growth, page 77

Cost: Unknown.

Note: It is not clear whether Governor Romney would request increased funding to pay for any additional inspections.

F. Challenge Unfair Trade Practices:

“The Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR) in a Romney administration will be tasked with pursuing all significant claims of unfair trade practices. It will also take a far more active role in encouraging private firms that have been victimized to raise claims both in U.S. courts and at the WTO.”

Believe in America: Mitt Romney’s Plan for Jobs and Economic Growth, page 79

Cost: Unknown.

Note: It is not clear whether Governor Romney would request increased funding for USTR operations.

 

G. Create Personal Reemployment Accounts:

“One particularly promising approach that Mitt Romney supports and believes states should be encouraged to pursue is a system of Personal Reemployment Accounts for unemployed individuals.”

Believe in America: Mitt Romney’s Plan for Jobs and Economic Growth, page 125

Cost: Unknown.

Note: This proposal could either increase spending or result in savings to taxpayers depending upon how it is structured. If the federal government matches contributions to the accounts, the result could be higher spending. The proposal could generate savings if it reduced administrative overhead for unemployment benefit-administration at the federal level.

   

Energy, Agriculture, and the Environment: Unknown

A. Conduct Domestic Energy Survey and Expedite Leasing:

“On Inauguration Day, [Romney] will submit a jobs package to Congress consisting of … [t]he Domestic Energy Act [that directs] the Department of the Interior to undertake a comprehensive survey of American energy reserves in partnership with exploration companies and initiates leasing in all areas currently approved for exploration[.]”

Believe in America: Mitt Romney’s Plan for Jobs and Economic Growth, page 6

Cost: Unknown.

Note: New lease sites could generate additional royalty payments to the federal government, which budgetary agencies classify as offsetting receipts (negative outlays). However, there are several factors that could affect those payments: the number of permits made available, the price of oil, and how revenues are split between the states and the federal government.

 

B. Reform Environmental Laws:

“Romney will also press Congress to reform our environmental laws and to ensure that they allow for a proper assessment of their costs.”

“Romney will seek to amend the Clean Air and Clean Water Acts to ensure that cost is taken properly into account at every stage in the regulatory process.”

Believe in America: Mitt Romney’s Plan for Jobs and Economic Growth, page 60

Cost: Unknown.

Note: The proposals could lead to some federal budget savings if federal regulatory agencies’ enforcement burdens were streamlined, but other federal budget costs might result from increased regulatory analysis. Therefore, NTUF is unable to estimate the effect Governor Romney’s proposals would have on federal spending.

 

C. Reform Environmental Regulations:

“As president, Mitt Romney will eliminate the regulations promulgated in pursuit of the Obama administration’s costly and ineffective anti-carbon agenda.”

Believe in America: Mitt Romney’s Plan for Jobs and Economic Growth, page 60

Cost: Unknown.

Note: The proposal could lead to some federal budget savings if federal regulatory agencies’ enforcement burdens were streamlined, but NTUF is unable to estimate a precise impact on the federal budget.

 

D. Reform Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC):

“As president, Mitt Romney will seek to streamline NRC procedures so that licensing decisions for any reactors to be built with an approved design on or adjacent to an existing site are completed within two years. And he will expand NRC capabilities so that the agency is able to review and approve several types of certified reactor designs in a way that ensures safety and reliability.”

Believe in America: Mitt Romney’s Plan for Jobs and Economic Growth, page 60

Cost: Unknown.

Note: It is not clear whether Governor Romney would request increased funding for NRC operations.

   

Federal Government Reform: -$383.409 billion (savings)

A. Block-Grant Federal Programs:

“Mitt Romney … will also block grant housing, hunger, and retraining programs.

http://www.mittromney.com/news/press/2012/01/restore-fiscal-sanity-washington

Cost: Unknown.

Note: While the block-granting of programs back to the states could result in administrative savings to the federal government, NTUF is unable to estimate possible cost savings due to the lack of specificity in Governor Romney’s proposal.

B. Reduce Non-Security Discretionary Spending:

“As president, Mitt Romney will send Congress a bill on Day One that cuts non-security discretionary spending by 5 percent across the board, and then seek to cap non-security discretionary spending below 2008 levels[.]”

http://www.mittromney.com/news/press/2012/01/restore-fiscal-sanity-washington

Cost: -$22.807 billion (first-year savings).

Source: Budget of the U.S. Government, Fiscal Year 2013, Historical Tables, page 130. Budget of the U.S. Government, Fiscal Year 2013, Analytical Perspectives, page 423. Budget of the U.S. Government, Fiscal Year 2009, Analytical Perspectives, page 20.

http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/budget/fy2013/assets/hist.pdf

http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/budget/fy2013/assets/spec.pdf

Note: NTUF assumes that Governor Romney would exempt the Departments of Defense and Homeland Security as security-related spending. A 5 percent reduction in non-security-related discretionary budget authority for FY 2013 would result in savings of $22.807 billion. Additionally, NTUF estimates that capping spending below 2008 levels would generate savings of $55.294 billion over the following two years relative to the modified baseline. However, NTUF assumes that the savings from these cuts would be included in Governor Romney’s proposal to cap spending at 20 percent of Gross Domestic Product, which is discussed in the next item.

 

C. Cap Spending at 20 percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP):

“Over the last 33 months, President Obama has grown federal spending to 24% of the economy, 24% of the GDP. As president, I pledge to reduce spending to 20% of GDP by the end of my first term.”

http://www.mittromney.com/news/press/2011/11/mitt-romney-delivers-remarks-fiscal-policy

Cost: -$340.383 billion (-$1.361 trillion over four years).

Source: Budget of the U.S. Government, Fiscal Year 2013, page 205.

http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/budget/fy2013/assets/budget.pdf

Note: NTUF assumes that any cuts associated with this proposal would encompass the savings associated with Governor Romney’s proposals to cap non-security discretionary spending below 2008 levels (see above item). NTUF also assumes that the cuts would begin with the budget that Romney would submit for FY 2014 and continue through FY 2017.

 

D. Cut Waste, Fraud, and Abuse:

“The White House estimates that more than $100 billion was lost to waste, fraud, and abuse last year. Mitt Romney will aim to cut this problem in half, producing more than $50 billion in annual savings.”

http://www.mittromney.com/news/press/2012/01/restore-fiscal-sanity-washington

Cost: Unknown.

Note: It is possible that efforts to reduce waste, fraud, and abuse would result in significant savings. Based on the information available from campaign documents, NTUF is unable to estimate the level of resources that Governor Romney would dedicate to fighting waste, fraud, and abuse; nor is NTUF able to determine with a reasonable degree of precision what level of savings those investments might generate or over what period of time those savings would begin to appear.

 

E. Consolidate Federal Training Programs:

“On Inauguration Day, he will submit a jobs package to Congress consisting of … [t]he Retraining Reform Act [that consolidates] the sprawl of federal retraining programs and returns funding and responsibility for these programs to the states[.]”

Believe in America: Mitt Romney’s Plan for Jobs and Economic Growth, page 6

Cost: -$300 million (first-year savings).

Source: NTUF’s estimate of proposed savings in consolidating job training programs identified by President Obama during his 2012 State of the Union address.

            http://www.ntu.org/ntuf/sotu-cost-2012.html

 

F. Eliminate Amtrak:

“Mitt Romney will also eliminate or cut a wide range of programs, from Amtrak to the National Endowments for the Arts and Humanities … [.]”

http://www.mittromney.com/news/press/2012/01/restore-fiscal-sanity-washington

Cost: -$1.34 billion (-$6.699 billion over five years).

Source: Amtrak is authorized to spend $2.233 billion for FY 2013. This authorization includes the railroad’s federal operating grant as well as its capital and debt service costs. NTUF assumes that Governor Romney would reduce Amtrak’s funding by 20 percent each year for five years. Thus, the $1.34 billion in savings represents an annualized average rather than the first-year savings. http://www.amtrak.com/servlet/BlobServer?blobcol=urldata&blobtable=MungoBlobs&blobkey=id&blobwhere=1249237091777&blobheader=application%2Fpdf&blobheadername1=Content-disposition&blobheadervalue1=attachment;filename=Amtrak_ATK-12-008_Amtrak_FY_2013_Grant_Leg_Request.pdf

 

G. Eliminate Other Programs:

“I like the National Endowment for the Arts, the National Endowment for the Humanities, and the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, but I refuse to borrow almost $1 billion a year from China to pay for them.”

http://www.mittromney.com/news/press/2011/11/mitt-romney-delivers-remarks-fiscal-policy

Cost: -$760 million (one-year savings).

Source: The President’s FY 2013 Budget requests outlays of $156 million for the National Endowment for the Arts, $159 million for the National Endowment for the Humanities, and $445 million for the Corporation of Public Broadcasting.

Budget of the U.S. Government, Fiscal Year 2013, Appendix, page 1309, page 1370, and page 1372.

http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/budget/fy2013/assets/appendix.pdf

 

H. Reduce Federal Workforce:

“As president, Mitt Romney will…work to cut the current size of the federal workforce by 10 percent through attrition. This could be achieved by hiring only one new employee for every two who leave federal service in a Romney administration.”

Believe in America: Mitt Romney’s Plan for Jobs and Economic Growth, page 41

Cost: -$6.919 billion (-$34.595 billion over five years).

Source: Related legislation has been introduced in the form of H.R. 3029 (112th Congress), the Reducing the Size of the Federal Government Through Attrition Act of 2011. A CBO cost estimate is available.

http://www.cbo.gov/sites/default/files/cbofiles/attachments/hr3029.pdf

Note: The bill provides the President with the authority to waive the attrition policy for national security concerns, extraordinary emergencies, or if the performance of a necessary agency might be compromised. Based on this wavier authority, CBO estimates that up to two-thirds of the federal workforce would be exempted from the attrition policy. A less expansive use of waivers could result in larger savings. The House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform estimates that similar legislation – H.R. 2114 (112th Congress) – could save $63.75 billion over five years, or $12.75 billion per year.

http://issa.house.gov/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=811:issa-ross-and-chaffetz-introduce-bill-to-cut-federal-workforce-by-10-by-2015&catid=63:2011-press-releases&Itemid=4

 

I. Limit Federal Pay and Benefits: 

“I will limit the salaries and benefits of workers in the public sector to those for workers in the private sector. Public servants should not get a better deal than the taxpayers they work for. By linking government pay with private sector pay, we will save as much as $47 billion a year.”

http://www.mittromney.com/news/press/2011/11/mitt-romney-delivers-remarks-fiscal-policy

Cost: Unknown.

Note: NTUF is uncertain how or when Governor Romney’s proposed reforms would be phased in. This proposal might generate larger long-term savings, but NTUF is unable to estimate how savings might be achieved in the short-term due to the lack of detail provided.

 

J. Adopt Regulations from the Executive in Need of Scrutiny (REINS) Act:

“To return the system to proper confines, Mitt Romney supports implementation of a law, similar to the REINS Act now before Congress, that would require all “major” rules (i.e., those with an economic impact greater than $100 million) to be approved by both houses of Congress before taking effect.”

Believe in America: Mitt Romney’s Plan for Jobs and Economic Growth, page 63

Cost: Unknown.

Note: Related legislation has been introduced in the form of H.R. 10 (112th Congress), the Regulations from the Executive in Need of Scrutiny Act of 2011. According to CBO’s cost estimate for H.R. 10, “About 80 major rules have been issued per year, on average, over the past five years. Major rules vary greatly in their nature and scope. CBO and the staff of the Joint Committee on Taxation (JCT) cannot determine the budgetary effects of preventing all future major rules from going into effect, but we expect that enacting H.R. 10 would have effects on both direct spending and revenues.”

http://www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/125xx/doc12552/hr10.pdf

 

K. Repeal Davis-Bacon Act:

“And we can save nearly $11 billion a year by repealing a political giveaway that protects unions from competition and drives up the cost of government contracts: it’s time to repeal Davis- Bacon.”

http://www.mittromney.com/news/press/2011/11/mitt-romney-delivers-remarks-fiscal-policy

Cost: -$10.9 billion (first-year savings).

Source: Related legislation has been introduced in the form of H.R. 745 (112th Congress), an act to repeal the wage rate requirements commonly known as the Davis-Bacon Act. The cost estimate is based on information from the Heritage Foundation.

http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2011/02/repealing-the-davis-bacon-act-would-save-taxpayers-$10-9-billion

 

Health Care: -$136.098 billion (savings)

A. Repeal Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act:

“Mitt Romney has laid out a specific plan for dismantling Obamacare even without the congressional majorities required to strike it formally from the books. On his first day in office, he will issue an executive order paving the way for Obamacare waivers for all 50 states. He will then work with Congress to accomplish full repeal.”

Believe in America: Mitt Romney’s Plan for Jobs and Economic Growth, page 59

Cost: -$40.3 billion (-$201.5 billion over five years).

Source: Related legislation has been introduced in the form of H.R. 2 (112th Congress), the Repealing the Job-Killing Health Care Law Act. A CBO cost estimate is available.

            http://www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/120xx/doc12069/hr2.pdf

 

B. Block-Grant Medicaid Funding:

“We need to turn Medicaid back to the states and allow them to craft the healthcare solutions that suit their citizens best. By limiting the growth of Medicaid funding to CPI plus one percent, we will save $100 billion a year.”

http://www.mittromney.com/news/press/2011/11/mitt-romney-delivers-remarks-fiscal-policy

Cost: -$93.45 billion (-$467.27 billion over five years).

Source: CBO, The Budget and Economic Outlook: Fiscal Years 2012 to 2022.http://www.cbo.gov/sites/default/files/cbofiles/attachments/01-31-2012_Outlook.pdf

Note: CBO’s baseline estimate for FY 2013 Medicaid spending is $281 billion. Medicaid spending grows an average of 10.25 percent in CBO’s baseline forecast. Capping the growth at CPI plus 1 percent would allow spending to rise at an average rate of 2.94 percent.

 

C. Expand Tax Deductibility:

“The tax code currently offers open-ended subsidies for the purchase of insurance through employers. Mitt Romney will expand the tax deduction to also include those who buy their own health insurance.”

http://www.mittromney.com/issues/health-care

Cost: Unknown.

Note: The impact on outlays of this proposal would depend upon the extent to which subsidies or “refundable” (i.e., in excess of actual tax liability) credits for insurance are offered. Budgetary agencies classify the refundable portion of tax credits as outlays. In his Fiscal Year 2008 Budget, President George W. Bush offered a health insurance tax credit proposal that had a refundable component. At the time, NTUF estimated the potential cost at $2.856 billion per year. However, NTUF is unable to estimate any costs here due to the lack of details in Governor Romney’s proposal.

 

D. Purchase Insurance across State Lines:

“Mitt also believes that individuals should be allowed to purchase insurance across state lines, free from costly state benefit requirements.”

http://www.mittromney.com/issues/health-care

Cost: $65 million ($326 million over five years).

Source: CBO cost estimate for H.R. 2355, the Health Care Choice Act of 2005 (109th Congress), a bill to amend the Public Health Service Act to provide for cooperative governing of individual health insurance coverage offered in interstate commerce. CBO’s initial cost estimate has been adjusted for inflation. The bill was reintroduced in the 112th Congress in the form of H.R. 346.

http://www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/66xx/doc6639/hr2355.pdf

 

E. Create Small Business Purchasing Pools:

“[I]ndividuals and small businesses should be allowed to form purchasing pools to lower insurance costs and improve choice.”

http://www.mittromney.com/issues/health-care

Cost: $7 million ($36 million over five years).

Source: CBO cost estimate for H.R. 525 (109th Congress), a bill to improve access and choice for entrepreneurs with small businesses with respect to medical care for their employees. CBO’s initial cost estimate has been adjusted for inflation. The bill was reintroduced in the 112th Congress in the form of H.R. 1050. http://www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/62xx/doc6265/hr525.pdf

 

F. Reform Medical Malpractice:

“The current medical liability system encourages defensive medicine and drives up health care costs. To address these problems, Mitt Romney will cap non-economic damages in medical malpractice litigation. He also believes in providing innovation grants to states for additional medical liability reforms, such as alternative dispute resolution or health care courts.”

http://www.mittromney.com/issues/health-care

Cost: -$2.42 billion (-$12.1 billion over five years).

Source: Related legislation has been introduced in the form of H.R. 5 (112th Congress), the Help Efficient, Accessible, Low-cost, Timely Healthcare (HEALTH) Act of 2011. A CBO cost estimate is available.

http://www.cbo.gov/sites/default/files/cbofiles/attachments/HR_5_Rules.pdf

Note: Governor Romney’s “innovation grants” would likely reduce the savings assumed in this estimate. However, NTUF is unable to determine at what levels he intends to fund the grants.

 

G. Health Savings Accounts (HSAs):

“Mitt Romney will strengthen health savings accounts (HSAs), which help consumers save for health expenses and choose cost-effective insurance. For example, he believes that we should permit HSA funds to be used to pay for health insurance premiums.”

http://www.mittromney.com/issues/health-care

Cost: Unknown.

Note: It is unclear if Governor Romney intends to offer subsidies for HSAs in addition to greater flexibility of allowable purchases.

   

Homeland Security and Law Enforcement: Unknown

A. Create Joint Hemispheric Task Force:

“Romney will build on separate existing anti-drug and counterterrorism initiatives to form a unified Hemispheric Joint Task Force on Crime and Terrorism. The aim of this group will be to coordinate intelligence and enforcement among all regional allies.”

An American Century: A Strategy to Secure America’s Enduring Interests and Ideals, page 33

Cost: Unknown.

Note: It is unclear how much, if any, new funding Governor Romney would seek for this new entity.

 

B. Combat Drug Cartels:

“Mexico and the United States must take immediate action on the problem of violent drug cartels operating across our shared border, which has already inflicted great costs to both our countries in human life, drug addiction, and social decay.”

An American Century: A Strategy to Secure America’s Enduring Interests and Ideals, page 34

Cost: Unknown.

Note: It is unclear what type of action Governor Romney intends to take.

 

C. Complete Border Fence:

“Romney will use the full powers of the presidency to complete an impermeable border fence protecting our southern frontier from infiltration by illegal migrants, trans-national criminal networks, and terrorists.”

An American Century: A Strategy to Secure America’s Enduring Interests and Ideals, page 34

Cost: Unknown.

Note: A 2009 report from the Government Accountability Office (GAO) lists the target length of the border fence to be 661 miles. A January 2012 update from Customs and Border Protection states that the agency has overseen the construction of 651 miles of pedestrian and vehicle fencing. Vehicle fencing was completed in January 2010. The last mile of pedestrian fencing is to be completed by April of this year. It is unclear whether Governor Romney would expand the fence to reach the initial target of 661 miles or extend it further along the 1,993-mile border. Costs would vary depending upon the type of fencing to be used. According to the GAO report, fencing completed by October 2008 cost an average of $3.9 million per mile for pedestrian fencing and $1.0 million per mile for vehicle fencing. The report further notes, “However, once contracts were awarded, the average per mile costs had increased to $6.5 million per mile for pedestrian fencing and $1.8 million per mile for vehicle fencing. Tactical infrastructure program officials said the per mile costs increased over time due to various factors, such as property acquisition costs incurred for these miles that were not a factor for many of the previous miles and costs for labor and materials increased.”

Source: GAO, Secure Border Initiative: Technology Deployment Delays Persist and the Impact of Border Fencing Has Not Been Assessed, September 2009.

http://www.gao.gov/assets/300/294982.pdf

United States Department of Homeland Security, “Southwest Border Fence Construction Progress,” January 2012.

http://www.cbp.gov/xp/cgov/border_security/ti/ti_news/sbi_fence/

 

D. Simplify Congressional Reporting for Department of Homeland Security:

“Mitt Romney will also work with Congress to unify the over 108 authorizing committees and subcommittees in Congress that oversee the Department of Homeland Security.”

An American Century: A Strategy to Secure America’s Enduring Interests and Ideals, page 40

Cost: Unknown.

Note: This proposal could result in administrative cost savings, but NTUF is unable to estimate such savings with a reasonable degree of precision owing to the lack of detail in campaign documents.

   

National Security and International Relations: $170.802 billion

A. Expand Naval Capabilities in the Pacific:

“Toward that end, the United States should maintain and expand its naval presence in the Western Pacific.”

An American Century: A Strategy to Secure America’s Enduring Interests and Ideals, page 18

Cost: Unknown.

Note: It is unclear whether Governor Romney supports an increase in spending to accommodate this expansion or whether he would shift existing assets to the Western Pacific.

 

B. Maintain Defense Spending at 4 Percent of GDP:

“We cannot rebuild our military strength without paying for it. Romney will begin by reversing Obama-era defense cuts and return to the budget baseline established by Secretary Robert Gates in 2010, with the goal of setting core defense spending – meaning funds devoted to the fundamental military components of personnel, operations and maintenance, procurement, and research and development – at a floor of 4 percent of G[ross] D[omestic] P[roduct].”

An American Century: A Strategy to Secure America’s Enduring Interests and Ideals, pages 15-16

Cost: $170.802 billion ($683.207 billion over four years).

Source: Budget of the U.S. Government, Fiscal Year 2013, page 205. Budget of the U.S. Government, Fiscal Year 2013, Historical Tables, pages 151-152. Budget of the U.S Government, Fiscal Year 2013, Analytical Perspectives, page 17.

http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/budget/fy2013/assets/budget.pdf

http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/budget/fy2013/assets/hist.pdf

http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/budget/fy2013/assets/spec.pdf

Note: Outlays for defense spending are expected to decline from 3.4 percent of GDP in FY 2014 to 2.9 percent of GDP in FY 2018. Cost estimate reflects the difference between this spending path and Governor Romney’s proposed spending level.

 

C. Support Civil Society Groups in China:

“A Romney administration will vigorously support and engage civil society groups within China that are promoting democratic reform, anti-corruption efforts, religious freedom, and women’s and minority rights. It will look to provide these groups and the Chinese people with greater access to information and communication through a stronger Internet freedom initiative.”

An American Century: A Strategy to Secure America’s Enduring Interests and Ideals, page 20

Cost: Unknown.

Note: It is unclear what budgetary resources Governor Romney would request for this initiative.

 

D. Support Civil Society in Russia:

“Mitt Romney will support measures to increase the flow of information into Russia that highlights the virtues of free elections, free speech, economic opportunity, and a government free of corruption. A useful additional step would be to bring more leaders of Russian civil society organizations to the United States on exchanges programs, which would raise their profile and empower them with ideas that can be shared with their fellow Russians upon their return.”

An American Century: A Strategy to Secure America’s Enduring Interests and Ideals, page 36

Cost: Unknown.

Note: It is unclear what budgetary resources Governor Romney would request for this initiative.

 

E. Cooperate on Israel Security:

“To ensure Israel’s security, Mitt Romney will work closely with Israel to maintain its strategic military edge.”

An American Century: A Strategy to Secure America’s Enduring Interests and Ideals, page 21

Cost: Unknown.

Note: It is unclear what budgetary resources Governor Romney would request for this initiative.

 

F. Support “Arab Spring” Governments:

“A Romney administration will support those individuals and groups that are seeking to instill lasting democratic values and build sturdy democratic institutions that will sustain open societies in countries that have been closed for too long. Romney will make available technical assistance to governments and transitional bodies to promote democracy, good governance, and sound financial management.”

An American Century: A Strategy to Secure America’s Enduring Interests and Ideals, pages 22-23

Cost: Unknown.

Note: It is unclear what budgetary resources Governor Romney would request for this initiative.

 

G. Increase Enforcement of the Proliferation Security Initiative:

“He will also step up enforcement of the Proliferation Security Initiative to constrain North Korean illicit exports by increasing the frequency of inspections of North Korean ships and discouraging foreign ports from permitting entry to North Korean ships.”

An American Century: A Strategy to Secure America’s Enduring Interests and Ideals, pages 29

Cost: Unknown.

Note: It is unclear what budgetary resources Governor Romney would request for this initiative.

 

H. Reorganize Diplomatic and Assistance Efforts in the Middle East:

“Work with Congress and relevant Executive branch agencies to organize all diplomatic and assistance efforts in the greater Middle East under one regional director with unified budgetary and directive authority.”

An American Century: A Strategy to Secure America’s Enduring Interests and Ideals, page 43

Cost: Unknown.

Note: This consolidation could result in administrative savings. However, due to the lack of specifics, NTUF is unable to calculate a cost estimate for this proposal.

 

I. Prevent Cyber-Attacks:

“Order a full interagency initiative to formulate a unified national strategy to deter and defend against the growing threats of militarized cyber-attacks, cyber-terrorism, cyber-espionage, and private-sector intellectual property theft. U.S. defense and intelligence resources must be fully engaged in this critical aspect of national defense.”

An American Century: A Strategy to Secure America’s Enduring Interests and Ideals, page 43

Cost: Unknown.

Note: It is unclear what budgetary resources Governor Romney would request for this initiative.