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Issue Brief


New Jersey U.S. Senatorial Candidate Spending Analysis – Cory Booker

October 14, 2013


    

New Jersey U.S. Senatorial Candidate Spending Analysis – Cory Booker
Total Net Spending Agenda: $33.033 billion


Economy, Transportation, and Infrastructure: $3.19 billion

A. Build a New Airplane Traffic Control System:

“[W]e should … [i]ncrease funding for [a] Next Gen [sic] Satellite-based airplane traffic control system.”

Improving the American Business Climate, page 6

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/improving-the-american-business-climate

Cost: Unknown.

Note: Related legislation has been introduced in the form of H.R. 505 (113th Congress), the Balancing Act. Section 751 (b) would authorize $3 billion for research and operating costs to carry out advancements for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). NextGen is a program to research and upgrade air-traffic satellite-based systems. According to the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, Fiscal Year 2014 Budget Submission, page 805, President Obama requested $1 billion in NextGen funding for FY 2014. In FY 2013, the FAA spent $944 million on NextGen-related activities.

http://www.dot.gov/sites/dot.dev/files/docs/FAA_FY2014_Budget_Estimates.pdf

It is unclear how much additional spending Mayor Booker would support.

  

B. Close the Wage Gap for Women:

“[A]s your Senator, I will … [support] further efforts to close the income gap between men and women, including the Paycheck Fairness Act … .”

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/advancing-womens-rights

Cost: $3 million ($15 million over five years).

Source: Related legislation has been introduced in the form of H.R. 377 and S. 84 (113th Congress), the Paycheck Fairness Act. The bill would enhance regulations pertaining to equal pay. The text of the bill authorizes $15 million for compliance training, a grant program for negotiation skills training for girls and women, and for research, education and outreach. NTUF assumes the outlays would occur over five years.

 

C. Create an Infrastructure Bank:

“[W]e should … [f]ix our crumbling infrastructure with a National Infrastructure Bank. …

We can create jobs and strengthen our infrastructure … by creating a national infrastructure bank that leverages public funding to increase private investment in American roads, bridges, airports, marine ports and other assets.”

Improving the American Business Climate, page 5

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/improving-the-american-business-climate

Cost: $302 million ($1.51 billion over five years).

Source: In September, 2011, the Obama Administration proposed the American Jobs Act. The legislation was introduced in the Senate as S. 1549 (112th Congress). Title II would establish an American Infrastructure Financing Authority to provide federal loans and loan guarantees to certain transportation, water, and energy projects. A

Congressional Budget Office (CBO) estimate is available.

http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2011/09/08/fact-sheet-american-jobs-act http://www.cbo.gov/sites/default/files/cbofiles/attachments/s1549.pdf

Note: Under the bill, $10 billion would be appropriated to the Financing Authority to cover subsidy and administrative costs related to loan operations and loan guarantees. The subsidy cost represents the amount of a loan that is not paid back. CBO reported that related government-backed loans and loan guarantees for infrastructure projects have a subsidy cost of approximately 10 to 15 percent of the loan amount. If the Authority received the full $10 billion subsidy amount, it could finance $60 billion to $100 billion in loans. CBO estimated the outlay cost of the infrastructure bank would be $1.51 billion over five years and $6.91 billion over ten years.

 

D. Enact the Water Resources Development Act:

“[W]e should … [enact] the Water Resources Development Act.”

Improving the American Business Climate, page 6

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/improving-the-american-business-climate

Cost: $1.181 billion ($5.905 billion over five years).

Source: S. 601 (113th Congress), the Water Resources Development Act of 2013, would authorize funding for the Army Corps of Engineers to contract water projects. A CBO estimate is available.

http://www.cbo.gov/sites/default/files/cbofiles/attachments/s601.pdf

 

E. Establish Manufacturing Educational Institutions:

“[Establish] Manufacturing Universities[.] We need to fundamentally rethink the way industry and academia interact by rewarding and supporting universities that integrate industry needs into academic offerings. ... With the average high-skilled manufacturing worker now 56 years old, we cannot wait to train the next generation of manufacturers. From offering college internship programs to well-paid apprenticeships for doctoral students to regional industry specific curricula, these ‘manufacturing universities’ can become magnets for companies seeking high-skilled, experienced workers, who are practically trained.”

The United States Makes, The World Takes, page 5

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/manufacturing-and-exports

Cost: $134 million ($672 million over five years).

Source: A request for this program was included in the President’s most recent budget proposal, Budget of the U.S. Government, Fiscal Year 2014, Historical Tables, Table S-9: Mandatory and Receipt Proposals.

http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/budget/fy2014/assets/tables.pdf

 

F. Establish Manufacturing High Schools and Incentives to Manufacturers for Job Training:

“No one company is big enough to make the investment of time, energy, or money to engage in meaningful local workforce pipeline reform. But it is vital that local manufacturers engage in education strategy, curriculum building, in-school training, and apprenticeship programming to develop the skilled workforce that many of them need. … [W]e can start by designating manufacturing high schools … and going further by compensating employers for their time spent making sector-wide contributions through tax credits for engagement in secondary and post-secondary manufacturing training programs.”

The United States Makes, The World Takes, pages 5-6

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/manufacturing-and-exports

            Cost: Unknown.

 

G. Expand Broadband Internet Access:

“[W]e should … [b]ring broadband to underserved urban and rural communities. … Included in the Federal Communications Commission’s National Broadband Plan is a proposal to transform the Universal Service Fund – a subsidy program that helps develop infrastructure and improve affordability for telephone service – into a program that would perform the same function for broadband internet. Congress must fully fund this program … .”

Improving the American Business Climate, page 6

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/improving-the-american-business-climate

Cost: $25 million (first-year cost).

Urban: Related legislation has been introduced in the form of H.R. 1685 (113th Congress), the Broadband Adoption Act of 2013, a bill to reform and modernize the Universal Service Fund Lifeline Assistance Program. The bill would establish a program to promote the adoption of broadband Internet service for all low-income households. The Federal Communications Commission provided a cost estimate for a previous version of the bill, H.R. 2163, in the 112th Congress.

 

H. Extend Lending by the Export-Import (Ex-Im) Bank:

“[We should raise] the Export-Import Bank’s statutory lending cap to help small businesses grow.”

Improving the American Business Climate, page 9

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/improving-the-american-business-climate

Cost: Unknown.

Note: The Export-Import Bank Reauthorization Act of 2012 increased the Export-Import Bank’s exposure ceiling – the limit on the total amounts of the Bank’s outstanding loans and guarantees – to $130 billion for 2013. It is unclear how much Mayor Booker would increase the Export-Import Bank’s lending cap and if such increases would change outlays. Currently, the Ex-Im Bank is generating receipts from its loans, but that has not always been the case.

http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/12/635e

 

I. Expand Federal Housing Programs:

“[W]e should … [p]reserve and expand federal housing programs like Section 8 … and improve enforcement of anti-discrimination laws that too often fail to protect tenants using Section 8 vouchers from being turned away from wealthier and geographically diverse communities. … [We should] expand affordable housing options with convenient access to urban areas by public transit.”

Strengthening Competitiveness, Ending Child Poverty, page 7

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/child-poverty

Cost: $1.51 billion ($7.552 billion over five years).

Note: Related legislation was introduced in the form of H.R. 1209 (112th Congress), the Section 8 Voucher Reform Act of 2011. The bill would expand the authority of public housing agencies. NTUF determined the cost of the bill. A CBO estimate is available for a version of the bill, H.R. 3045, that was introduced in the 111th Congress.

http://www.cbo.gov/sites/default/files/cbofiles/ftpdocs/105xx/doc10575/hr3045.pdf

 

J. Increase Funding for Hardest Hit Fund (HHF):

“The federal government should also help community development finance institutions and nonprofit community banks to compete in the secondary mortgage markets by appropriating additional Hardest Hit Funds to acquire distressed home mortgages.”

Strengthening Competitiveness, Ending Child Poverty, page 8

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/child-poverty

Cost: Unknown.

Note: The HHF, established in 2010 under the Troubled Assets Relief Program, set aside $7.6 billion for those states most adversely affected by the mortgage crisis. The funds must be spent by 2017. In March 2013, USA Today reported that states had only spent 16 percent of the $7.6 billion.

http://www.treasury.gov/initiatives/financial-stability/TARP-Programs/housing/hhf/Pages/default.aspx

http://www.usatoday.com/story/money/business/2013/03/15/federal-mortgage-help/1990473/

It is unclear how much additional funding Mayor Booker would support.

 

K. Pass the Family and Medical Leave Act:

“[A]s your Senator, I will … [s]upport the expansion of the Family and Medical Leave Act to give working families more flexibility.”

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/advancing-womens-rights

Cost: Unknown.

Note: The Family and Medical Leave Inclusion Act has been introduced in the 113th Congress in the form of H.R. 1751 and S. 846. The bill would require employers to grant leave for workers to care for a family member who has a serious health condition. A cost estimate is currently not available for coverage of federal employees under this proposal.

 

L. Provide for Mortgage Relief:

“The Federal Housing Finance Agency should immediately take steps to approve principal reductions for underwater mortgages held by Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae. Negative equity is a driving cause of mortgage delinquency and Fannie and Freddie should play a leadership role in helping homeowners stay in their homes.”

Strengthening Competitiveness, Ending Child Poverty, page 8

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/child-poverty

Cost: Unknown.

Note: According to a CBO report released in May 2013, “ … Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac have not been allowed to implement principal forgiveness out of concerns about fairness, implementation costs, and the incentive that the approach could provide for people to become delinquent in order to obtain principal forgiveness.” CBO outlined three different options that the Government-Sponsored Enterprises (GSEs) could implement to modify mortgages. Each option would, according to CBO, decrease the default rate for existing loans backed by the GSEs, leading to savings for the federal government ranging from $200 million to $2.8 billion over an unspecified period of time.

http://www.cbo.gov/sites/default/files/cbofiles/attachments/44115_PrincipalForgiveness.pdf

 

M. Raise the Minimum Wage:

“[W]e should … [p]ass the Fair Minimum Wage Act of 2013 … .”

Strengthening Competitiveness, Ending Child Poverty, page 6

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/child-poverty

Cost: Unknown.

Note: The Fair Minimum Wage Act of 2013 has been introduced in the 113th Congress in the form of H.R. 1010 and S. 460. The bill would gradually increase the minimum wage from $7.25 to $10.10 per hour over three years. The minimum wage would then be pegged to the Consumer Price Index and subsequently be raised accordingly. It is uncertain how wage increases would affect welfare programs and refundable tax credits, as workers receiving more income could be ineligible for some government benefits or workers could work less to maintain their current level of benefits. CBO has reported that these effects may offset each other or have little net impact.

http://www.cbo.gov/sites/default/files/cbofiles/ftpdocs/77xx/doc7713/thomasdec29.pdf

 

N. Reorganize Export-Related Agencies:

“We must reorganize the various government agencies associated with export regulation and assistance, with an eye towards better meeting the needs of our manufacturers. Separately, these agencies do good work, but if they aren’t under one roof, with focused leadership at the top, they won’t be able to function optimally for U.S. exporters. … Streamlining processes and cutting through red tape at the nineteen government agencies that offer export assistance is vital to meeting any ambitious manufacturing target.”

The United States Makes, The World Takes, page 4

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/manufacturing-and-exports

Cost: Unknown.

Note: In January 2013, the Government Accountability Office (GAO) identified several instances of procedural overlap between Small Business Administration, Export-Import Bank, and Department of Commerce activities related to the promotion and regulation of exports. GAO also noted recommendations to improve their operations in 2013 Annual Report: Actions Needed to Reduce Fragmentation, Overlap, and Duplication and Achieve Other Financial Benefits.

http://www.gao.gov/assets/660/653604.pdf

The costs or savings that could result from Mayor Booker’s proposal to streamline these processes would depend on the extent to which he would modify existing programs. Due to a lack of specificity in his proposal, NTUF is unable to determine any associated cost.

 

O. Restore Funding to Foreclosure Counselors:

“… [T]he federal government should restore funding to the network of nonprofit foreclosure counselors who are the front line of defense to predators and scam artists preying on desperate homeowners.”

Strengthening Competitiveness, Ending Child Poverty, page 8

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/child-poverty

Cost: $35 million (first-year cost).

Source: The FY 2011 budget included $79 million for the Housing Counseling Assistance Program. In FY 2013, the program received $44 million in appropriations (before the budgetary sequester). This estimate assumes Mayor Booker would restore funding to 2011 levels.

https://www.cfda.gov/?s=program&mode=form&tab=step1&id=f04ee415366dbfcb97bc2dc52d5237c0

http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/cpquery/?&sid=cp113OGh9O&r_n=sr045.113&dbname=cp113&&sel=TOC_506014&

 

P. Upgrade the Electric Grid:

“[W]e should … [c]reate a national smart grid that saves consumers money and reduces greenhouse gas emissions. … Congress should create a competitive program to incentivize the adoption of smart grid technology. Further, the Obama administration should continue to streamline the process for building high voltage transmission lines that connect renewable energy to the grid.”

Improving the American Business Climate, pages 6-7

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/improving-the-american-business-climate

Cost: Unknown.

Note: There are existing federal programs related to this proposal:

  • Smart Grid: The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act provided $4.5 billion to modernize the nation’s electric grid. According to the U.S. Department of Energy, Fiscal Year 2014 Budget Request, page 31, President Obama requested $169 million (a $29 million increase from FY 2013) for electricity delivery and energy reliability activities charged with grid modernization, resiliency, and innovation.
  • Clean Energy Transmission: According to the U.S. Department of Energy, Fiscal Year 2014, Budget Request, page 38, President Obama requested $200 million for the Race to the Top for Energy Efficiency and Grid Modernization program for FY 2014.

It is unclear whether Mayor Booker would utilize tax credits or direct federal spending in the form of grants to encourage innovation and lower emissions associated with the national power grid.

http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2013/04/f0/FY14_DOE_Budget_Highlights_Final.pdf


Education, Science, and Research: $9.18 billion

A. Accelerate Research and Development (R&D) by Doubling Funding for the America Creating Opportunities to Meaningfully Promote Excellence in Technology, Education, and Science (COMPETES) Act :

“[We must i]ncrease [the]internal government commitment to basic research: Accelerate support for R&D at select government agencies to better reflect the goals established by the America COMPETES Act of 2007. … We must make our promised investment now, and pledge to cut the America COMPETES delay in half, doubling funding levels by no later than 2021.”

Supporting Innovation, Fostering Long Term Job Growth, pages 2-4

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/supporting-innovation

“Congress should strengthen the [America COMPETES Act] by allocating the funding necessary for agencies to launch prize competitions.”

Supporting Innovation, Fostering Long Term Job Growth, page 7

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/supporting-innovation

Cost: $4.863 billion ($24.315 billion over five years).

Source: The estimate is based on spending levels published by the Congressional Research Service in September 2013, America COMPETES Acts: FY2008-FY2013 Funding Tables. NTUF projected annual increases in spending to double the funding by 2021. This would require additional outlays of $24.315 billion over the next five years, and $58 billion by FY 2021.

https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R42779.pdf

 

B. Allow for Year-Round Pell Grants:

“[We should allow for] Pell Grants to supplement a year-round higher education. Restoring the year-round Pell Grants that were cut in the 2011 budget deal would allow students with the greatest need to graduate more quickly. By funding summer classes, students could continue their studies, keep their work-study or local job without interruption, and reduce the costs of moving out of housing for the summer.”

Bringing Opportunity Within Reach: Renewing Our Commitment to Quality and Affordable Higher Education for All Americans, page 4

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/bringing-opportunity

Cost: $617 million ($3.084 billion over five years).

Note: Related legislation has been introduced in the form of H.R. 1924 (113th Congress), the Access to Education and Training Act. The bill would reinstate year-round federal Pell Grants. A CBO estimate from 2011 is available.

http://www.cbo.gov/sites/default/files/cbofiles/attachments/StudentLoan_3.pdf

 

C. Assist Children of Illegal Immigrants:

“Yes, I believe that [providing educational assistance to legal and illegal immigrant children] should be the case: Pell Grants for American citizens and for folks who have been in this country their whole life and know no other nation.”

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m79G0ZxLjxg (38:00)

Cost: $145 million (first-year cost).

Source: In the 107th Congress, S. 1291, the Development, Relief, and Education for Alien Minors (DREAM) Act, was introduced and scored by CBO. The bill would grant conditional nonimmigrant status and extend certain benefits to illegal aliens.

http://cbo.gov/sites/default/files/cbofiles/ftpdocs/36xx/doc3648/s1291.pdf

Note: Though the DREAM Act has been introduced in more recent Congresses, CBO has not included estimates for how many undocumented immigrant students would apply for Pell Grants, or the associated costs. In 2003, CBO estimated that 58,500 additional Pell Grants would be awarded. NTUF used that figure and multiplied it by the $2,478 average award amount for Pell Grants in 2013, based budget data from the Department of Education. The increase in Pell Grants would result in a $145 million cost. It is unclear whether there would be more or fewer immigrant students eligible this year and how spending for the grants would change after the first year.

http://www2.ed.gov/about/overview/budget/budget14/justifications/p-saoverview.pdf

 

D. Create Universal Preschool Programs:

“[We] need [to ensure] universal access to high-quality preschool starting at age three.”

Improving the American Business Climate, page 7

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/improving-the-american-business-climate

“[We must] … [g]uarantee universal access to preschool, starting at age 3, for every child by 2025.”

Strengthening Competitiveness, Ending Child Poverty, page 12

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/child-poverty

Cost: $3.458 billion ($17.291 billion over five years).

Source: According to the Budget of the U.S. Government, Fiscal Year 2014 Summary Tables, Table S-9, the President called for universal preschool to be made available to four-year olds. NTUF assumes that Mayor Booker’s proposal would be initially implemented based on the President’s proposal and then expanded to include three-year olds beyond the FY 2014-2018 period.

http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/budget/fy2014/assets/tables.pdf

Related legislation was introduced in the form of H.R. 555 (112th Congress), the Universal Prekindergarten Act. The bill would make federal funds available to provide universal prekindergarten access to children aged three to five. The text of the bill authorizes annual spending of $30 billion.

 

E. Disburse Pell Grants in Intervals:

“[We should disburse] Pell Grants in intervals to prevent waste. To minimize inefficient spending on Pell Grants, we should disburse funding in graduated intervals, rather than as a lump sum at the beginning of each semester. By doing so, no undue federal Pell Grant money will be disbursed for a student who withdraws from school mid-semester. This reform should be implemented in a way that is sensitive to colleges’ and universities’ need to maintain budget stability.”

Bringing Opportunity Within Reach: Renewing Our Commitment to Quality and Affordable Higher Education for All Americans, page 4

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/bringing-opportunity

Cost: Unknown.

Note: It is unknown to what degree this proposal would lead to budgetary savings.

 

F. Educate Students and Families on College Affordability:

“[We should] … [educate] students and families on college affordability. … To increase public understanding, the federal government should provide incentives for school districts and not-for-profits to provide in-depth seminars to educate students about financing college, including available resources, processes, and relevant deadlines.”

Bringing Opportunity Within Reach: Renewing Our Commitment to Quality and Affordable Higher Education for All Americans, page 5-6

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/bringing-opportunity

Cost: Unknown.

 

G. Establish a Higher Education College Trust Fund for Middle- and Low-Income Students:

“[We] need [to increase] college affordability by strengthening accountability and creating a national college trust fund for [Earned Income Tax Credit] recipients. … The United States should create a college trust fund that helps make college and career education more affordable for low- and middle-income families. … [T]he trust fund would provide up to $7,200 in tuition supports per child for families that receive EITC benefits. We must also support the President’s efforts to reward colleges that keep costs down, and decrease campus-based aid funding for colleges that increase tuition without providing more value to students.”

Improving the American Business Climate, page 7

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/improving-the-american-business-climate

“The plan would place a $400 per year, per child deposit into a trust account that could be used for approved post-secondary college or career education. The deposit would be issued in conjunction with a family’s EITC payment and would need to be accessed within a set time frame following high school graduation. An additional $100 per year of annual matching funds would be available for deposits made by families, states, or philanthropists. … [U]nder the proposed program, children in EITC households would be eligible for up to $9,000 in EITC tuition assistance for post-secondary training … .”

Bringing Opportunity Within Reach: Renewing Our Commitment to Quality and Affordable Higher Education for All Americans, page 3

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/bringing-opportunity

Cost: Unknown.

Note: The Center for Budget and Policy Priorities notes that in 2010, 27.5 million families received benefits through the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) program. The costs associated with Mayor Booker’s proposal to offer college tuition assistance through the EITC program would depend on the number of families that enroll in the program, and, over the long term, the number of students that make use of the tuition assistance within the set time frame. It is unclear what would be done with unspent funds. Also, because the funding would be tied to inflation and the number of eligible families would change over time, there could be significant variation in the amounts distributed each year. A cost estimate for this proposal is not available.

http://www.cbpp.org/research/index.cfm?fa=topic&id=27

 

H. Examine Online Courses and Instruction:

“[W]e should … [e]xplore hybrid learning through MOOCs [Massive Open Online Courses] and other online instruction. While important questions remain to be answered, particularly related to credentialing, cost, and access, the government should be a strong partner of educational institutions as they experiment with online technology.”

Bringing Opportunity Within Reach: Renewing Our Commitment to Quality and Affordable Higher Education for All Americans, page 7

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/bringing-opportunity

Cost: Unknown.

Note: Related legislation has been introduced in the form of S. 1087 (113th Congress), the Enhancing Education Through Technology Act of 2013. The bill would award grants to state and local educational agencies to improve student achievement by using new technology. A cost estimate is currently not available. It is unclear how Mayor Booker would change current education programs to include online technologies.

 

I. Incentivize New and Improved Science Parks:

“We should also incentivize the development of science parks to invigorate regional economies and promote shared research and discovery. … We need to ensure that existing science parks, as well as new ones, are able to meet industry needs in the 21st-century. By creating a competitive matching grant program we can promote the development of the next generation of science parks that serve emerging industries, such as clean energy.”

Supporting Innovation, Fostering Long Term Job Growth, page 6

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/supporting-innovation

Cost: $8 million ($38 million over five years).

Source: Related legislation was introduced in the form of S. 583 (111th Congress), the Building a Stronger America Act. The bill would provide grants and loan guarantees for the development and construction of science parks for innovation through high technology activities. For grants, the text of the bill authorizes $8 million in annual spending. Authorizations for the loan guarantees are not included in this estimate.

 

J. Increase Pell Grant Amounts:

“[W]e should … [i]ncrease the maximum size of Pell Grants. … [and increase] the graduation rate for students who receive Pell Grants. [W]e should further increase the maximum Pell Grant award for students nearing completion of their degrees. Additionally, we can encourage renewed focus on graduation by offering bonuses to colleges based on the number of Pell Grant recipients they graduate.”

Bringing Opportunity Within Reach: Renewing Our Commitment to Quality and Affordable Higher Education for All Americans, page 3-4

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/bringing-opportunity

Cost: Unknown.

Note: The maximum Pell Grant award for the 2013-14 school year is $5,645, an increase of $95 over the 2012-13. The President’s FY 2014 budget proposes $11.438 billion from FY 2015 through FY 2018 to “provide mandatory appropriations to sustain recent Pell Grant increases.”

It is unclear to what level Mayor Booker would further increase the maximum award. In 2011, the Congressional Research Service estimated that each $100 increase in the maximum level would cost between $500 million and $700 million.

http://blog.collegeup.org/maximum-federal-pell-grant-increasing-to-5645

http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/budget/fy2014/assets/tables.pdf

http://www.nasfaa.org/EntrancePDF.aspx?id=5410

 

K. Invest in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education:

“[W]e must increase funding for schools and programs that specialize in STEM education, use competitive grant programs to promote the adoption of best practices, and provide funding for expanded learning time in schools.”

Improving the American Business Climate, page 7

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/improving-the-american-business-climate

“…[T]he U.S. should increase funding for charters and magnets specializing in STEM education, … and deliver on the President’s call for 100,000 new STEM teachers over the next decade. To help meet this goal, Congress should double the maximum amount of Stafford loans that can be forgiven for teaching math and science in low-income high schools from $17,500 to $35,000. The need to repay student loans should not dissuade STEM graduates from taking much-needed teaching positions over higher paying jobs in the private sector.”

Supporting Innovation, Fostering Long Term Job Growth, page 8

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/supporting-innovation

Cost: $52 million ($225 million over five years).

  • STEM Schools: $35 million ($140 million over four years). Related legislation has been introduced in the form of H.R. 1343 (113th Congress), the Project Ready STEM Act. The bill would make grants to schools with STEM education programs. The text authorizes the spending.

Additional legislation has been introduced in the form of H.R. 2159 (113th Congress), the 21st Century STEM Competitive Jobs Act. The bill would require the Department of Education to award grants to schools to improve STEM education and to prepare them for careers in such fields. A cost estimate is currently not available.

    • STEM Charter and Magnet Schools:
      • Charter Schools: Unknown. The federal government does not currently directly fund STEM programs for charter schools.
      • Magnet Schools: Unknown. According to the Budget of the U.S. Government, Fiscal Year 2012, Department of Education Appendix, page 329, magnet school assistance, which includes projects to improve STEM education, received $100 million in FY 2013 and President Obama requested $100 million for FY 2014.

http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/budget/fy2014/assets/edu.pdf

  • New STEM Teachers: $17 million ($85 million over five years). “Obama Administration Announces New Stops to Meet President’s Goal of Preparing 100,000 STEM Teachers,” Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President, March, 2013. NTUF assumes the funds would be spent over five years.

http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/docs/stem_teachers_release_3-18-13_doc.pdf

  • Loan Forgiveness: Unknown. The FY 2013 Budget spent $195 million for loan forgiveness programs for teachers. It is unclear how much of that amount was allocated for eligible math and science teachers.

http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/budget/fy2014/assets/edu.pdf

 

L. Improve Education Programs in Prisons:

“[W]e should … [b]etter fund and improve access to proven, cost-saving methods of education inside prison. … [T]he federal government should support programs that allow people to obtain a high school diploma or secondary education degree.”

Reforming America’s Criminal Justice System, page 6

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/reforming-americas-criminal-justice-system

Cost: Unknown.

Note: Related legislation has been introduced in the form of H.R. 803 (113th Congress), the Supporting Knowledge and Investing in Lifelong Skills (SKILLS) Act. Title II Section 225 would permit new educational programs of varying skill levels at correctional institutions. A cost estimate is currently not available.

Related legislation was also introduced in the form of H.R. 3634 (112th Congress), the Federal Prison Industries Competition in Contracting Act of 2011. Section 10 would establish new training and education programs, totaling $75 million in the first year.

It is unclear what specific programs or funding amounts Mayor Booker advocates in this area.

M. Provide for Expanded Learning Time:

“[We must] … [s]upport competitive grant programs for expanded learning time in low-performing schools.”

Strengthening Competitiveness, Ending Child Poverty, page 13

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/child-poverty

Cost: Unknown.

Note: Related legislation was introduced in the form of S. 1311 (112th Congress), the Improving Student Achievement and Engagement through Expanded Learning Time Act of 2011. The bill would provide additional federal funds for 21st Century Community Learning Centers and state education agencies to provide additional time for students to improve their academic engagement and to participate in enrichment activities. NTUF determined the cost of S. 1311 would be $819 million per year, using the text of the bill and budgetary data. It is unclear how Mayor Booker would change these programs or their funding levels.

 

N. Restore Cuts in Community College Funding:

“[W]e should … [r]estore funding to community colleges. … Sequestration cuts $37 million in Supplemental Education Opportunity Grants ... . The federal government should be doing more, not less, for these critical but underfunded institutions and the students who attend them.”

Bringing Opportunity Within Reach: Renewing Our Commitment to Quality and Affordable Higher Education for All Americans, page 6

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/bringing-opportunity

Cost: $37 million (first-year cost).

 

O. Support “Pay It Forward”-Style Programs:

“[W]e should … [p]rovide federal support to incentivize ‘Pay it Forward’-style programs. The federal government should pursue ways to assist states … undertaking innovative strategies. Additionally, we should consider other avenues to limit student debt burden, including income-based repayment systems like those recently proposed by President Obama and some members of Congress.”

Bringing Opportunity Within Reach: Renewing Our Commitment to Quality and Affordable Higher Education for All Americans, page 2

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/bringing-opportunity

Cost: Unknown.

Note: The Pay It Forward plan is a form of personal financing for higher-education currently in effect in Oregon. Students are permitted to attend state public universities without paying tuition and then are obligated to pay a set portion (3 percent for four-year colleges and 1.5 percent for two-year school graduates) of their income to the state for 24 years. It is unclear how Mayor Booker would provide federal support to incentivize these state-based programs.

http://www.salon.com/2013/09/16/no_more_debt_the_new_plan_to_destroy_tuition_and_loans/


Energy, Agriculture, and the Environment: $8 million

A. Change or Create Energy Tax Credits:

“We can leverage the [T]ax [C]ode to create stability for businesses and encourage job creation by: … Permanently extending and making refundable the renewable electricity production tax credit … [and c]reating a tax credit for bringing jobs to the United States, with additional credits for manufacturing and advanced manufacturing … .”

Improving the American Business Climate, page 4-5

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/improving-the-american-business-climate

Cost: Unknown.

Note:

Electricity Credit: Unknown. A proposal by the Administration to make the renewable electricity production tax credit permanent was projected to result in  $1.792 billion of forgone revenue over the FY 2014-2018 period. It is possible that if the credit was made refundable, the government would instead spend that same amount but refundable credits are typically not awarded at a 100 percent rate. Because it is unclear how Mayor Booker’s proposal would alter the credits, the cost to the government is unknown.

http://www.novoco.com/hottopics/resource_files/fy_2014_revenue_excerpts.pdf

Manufacturing Credits: Unknown. It is unclear if Mayor Booker’s tax credit to reward manufacturers to bring additional jobs to the United States would be a deduction – which would not change spending – or a refundable credit, which could result in new spending.

 

B. Increase Access to Healthy Foods:

“My priorities will include … [e]xpanding efforts to fight the prevalence of food deserts and promoting access to healthy food options.”

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/promoting-access-to-quality-health-care

Cost: $25 million ($125 million over five years).

Note: Related legislation has been introduced in the form of S. 821 (113th Congress), the Healthy Food Financing Initiative Act. The bill would authorize new spending related to providing healthy food to underserved areas. The text authorizes the $125 million to remain available until expended, which NTUF assumes would be over five years.

 

C. Repeal Spending for Oil and Gas Exploration:

“My priorities will include … [f]ighting to eliminate unfair and unnecessary subsidies for the oil and gas industry that put the United States at a disadvantage in the race to develop green technology.”

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/preserving-our-environment

Cost: -$17 million (-$50 million over three years) (savings).

Source: This proposal was also included in the Budget of the U.S. Government, Fiscal Year 2014, Cuts, Consolidations, and Savings, page 177. Among the programs and credits that would be eliminated, only one would reduce spending: the Ultra-deepwater Oil and Gas Research and Development Program for an outlay savings of $50 million over three years. The President’s policy toward the oil and gas industry is focused more on tax-law changes. Among these are proposals to eliminate a commonly available deduction (section 199) and a tax credit (dual capacity), but only for oil and gas companies.

http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/budget/fy2014/assets/ccs.pdf

 

D. Support Climate Change Legislation:

“My priorities will include … [w]orking to support comprehensive climate change legislation that incentivizes the creation of green jobs and significantly reduces greenhouse gas emissions.”

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/preserving-our-environment

Cost: Unknown.

Note: It is unclear how Mayor Booker would create more green jobs and reduce greenhouse gas emissions but, among other proposals, legislators have proposed two methods: imposing a carbon tax or establishing a cap-and-trade system.

Related legislation has been introduced in the form of S. 332 (113th Congress), the Climate Protection Act of 2013. The bill would impose an annual $20-per-ton tax on every ton of carbon dioxide or methane and the fee would increase by 5.6 percent over the next ten years. The tax would only be lifted when an international treaty would levy similar fees or limits on all greenhouse gases emitters. Revenues, estimated by CBO to raise $1.2 trillion over ten years, would be used to finance advanced technology programs and loans to improve energy efficiency. The text of the bill authorizes $20.5 billion in annual spending.

http://www.sanders.senate.gov/imo/media/doc/021413-2pager.pdf

http://www.ntu.org/ntuf/taxpayerstab/4-26.html

Related legislation was also introduced in the form of S. 2191 (110th Congress), the America’s Climate Security Act of 2007. The bill would establish a cap-and-trade system for carbon emissions. A CBO estimate is available. CBO determined that the bill would increase spending by $56.48 billion over five years.

http://www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/91xx/doc9120/s2191.pdf

   

Government Reform: $267 million

A. Encourage Greater Civic Participation from Former Inmates:

 “[We should p]ass the Voter Empowerment Act of 2013 to restore federal voting rights to the formerly incarcerated.”

Reforming America’s Criminal Justice System, page 15

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/reforming-americas-criminal-justice-system

Cost: $262 million ($1.3 billion over five years).

Note: The text of H.R. 12 and S. 123 (113th Congress), the Voter Empowerment Act of 2013, authorizes $1.3 billion in appropriations over five years, for an annualized average of $262 million per year.

 

B. Ensure Equality in Government Contracting:

“[A]s your Senator, I will … [m]ake sure that the government contract procurement process promotes women-owned businesses and female entrepreneurs, as well as fair pay.”

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/advancing-womens-rights

Cost: $5 million ($25 million over five years).

Note: Related legislation was introduced in the 112th Congress in the form of H.R. 4203, the Women’s Procurement Program Improvement Act of 2012. The bill would allow federal contractors to award contracts on a noncompetitive basis to women-owned small businesses, as certified by the Small Business Administration. A CBO cost estimate is available.

http://www.cbo.gov/sites/default/files/cbofiles/attachments/hr4203.pdf

 

Health Care: Unknown

A. Develop Wellness and Preventative Health Policies:

“My priorities will include … [h]elping our nation develop strategies for wellness and preventative health.”

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/promoting-access-to-quality-health-care

Cost: Unknown.

Note: The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) established the Prevention and Public Health Fund, which provides federal funding for preventative health programs “to improve health and help restrain the rate of growth in private and public health care costs.” In 2012, some of that funding was cut in order to offset a delay in cuts to Medicare physician payments. Additional funds were eliminated or diverted as a result of sequestration in early 2013.

The law originally authorized $1.25 billion for FY 2013; after these legislative actions, actual FY 2013 resources for the Fund totaled $616.5 million. It is possible that Mayor Booker would seek to restore some or all of these appropriations. However, it is unclear through his statement whether or by how much he would actually do so.

http://www.apha.org/NR/rdonlyres/3060CA48-35E3-4F57-B1A5-CA1C1102090C/0/APHA_PPHF_factsheet_May2013.pdf

 

B. Expand Federal Health Education and Outreach:

“By expanding federal funding for education and outreach efforts [regarding the new health care law], particularly for states that regrettably did not opt for state run exchanges, states will be better able to collaborate with community-based organizations and schools to identify and enroll our most vulnerable citizens.”
Strengthening Competitiveness, Ending Child Poverty, page 9

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/child-poverty

Cost: Unknown.

Note: Under the provisions of ACA, the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is authorized to use certain amounts of ACA funding to promote enrollment in the program and educate citizens regarding the coverage options available to them. One way in which the Administration has done so is through the “Navigators” program, which identifies, trains, and funds organizations that help explain the ACA’s provisions to people in states without state-run health exchanges. In August of 2013, the Navigators program received $67 million in HHS funding. It is unclear whether Mayor Booker would pursue his proposal by increasing funding for or modifying this particular program, or through other policies.

http://thehill.com/blogs/healthwatch/health-reform-implementation/317205-hhs-announces-obamacare-navigators

 

C. Extend Medicaid Coverage to Every Child:

“[W]e should … [u]se competitive grants to support the design and implementation of state-level comprehensive performance monitoring systems that quarterback the care of every child in Medicaid. Programs similar to Connecticut’s HUSKY independent performance monitoring system will help ensure that children stay enrolled and receive appropriate, effective treatment.”

Strengthening Competitiveness, Ending Child Poverty, page 10

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/child-poverty

Cost: Unknown.

Note: In Fiscal Year 2013, the State of Connecticut appropriated $219,000 for independent performance monitoring of its HUSKY health care initiative, or about 0.02 percent of the program’s total $1 billion cost. The federal government matched 50 percent of that amount. Scaling those costs to a competitive nationwide grant program, as Mayor Booker has proposed, would require more detail regarding maximum grant amounts, how competitive the grant application process would be (i.e., the number of grants to be awarded), and any administrative costs associated with coordinating the program. Mayor Booker’s statement lacks sufficient detail to estimate any costs.

http://www.ctvoices.org/sites/default/files/h13perfmonitorfacts.pdf

 

D. Improve At-Home Prenatal and Early Childhood Health:

“[W]e should … [i]ncrease the federal government’s support of Nurse Family Partnership-type programs, creating a federal 50 percent matching program to provide at-home prenatal care and counseling for all first-time, at-risk pregnancies. Such a program, at a 2.5-year price tag of approximately $8,500 per pregnancy, would provide intensive at-home nurse services to the mother and child from the second trimester until the child’s second birthday.”

Strengthening Competitiveness, Ending Child Poverty, page 10

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/child-poverty

Cost: Unknown.

Note: The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act established Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting Programs. Outlays in FY 2013, $401 million, exceeded the authorized level by $1 million. It is unknown how much Mayor Booker would increase funding for these programs.
http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/budget/fy2014/assets/hhs.pdf

Mayor Booker cites a Pew Center study that estimated the costs of a similar program at about $8,580 per family enrolled. The study was published in 2012 and was conducted across 19,000 families participating in the Nurse-Family Partnership program (NFP). The study also projects various savings from reductions in “social costs” (such as smoking-related health issues, welfare payments, etc.). According to the Nurse-Family Partnership National Service Office, NFP typically costs $4,500 per family per year and currently serves 25,944 families. It receives funding from a mix of public and private sources, including Medicaid, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families grants, and state and local governments.

The costs associated with Mayor Booker’s proposal could vary depending on demographic changes, the extent to which possible savings are actually realized, as well as logistical and legal aspects related to its operation (such as maximum matching amounts, administrative costs, etc.).

http://www.pewstates.org/uploadedFiles/PCS_Assets/2013/Costs_and_ROI_executive_summary.pdf

http://www.nursefamilypartnership.org/assets/PDF/Fact-sheets/NFP_Snapshot


Homeland Security and Law Enforcement: $20.388 billion

A. Assist Inmates in Maintaining Functional Family Relationships:

“[W]e should … [s]upport programs that help inmates’ families visit prisons. We should continue and increase funding for grants provided by the Department of Health and Human Services … .”

Reforming America’s Criminal Justice System, page 8-9

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/reforming-americas-criminal-justice-system

Cost: Unknown.

Note: According to Office of Family Assistance under the Department of Health and Human Services, the federal government spent $150 million in FY 2013 on the Healthy Marriage and Responsible Fatherhood Initiative. The funding request for FY 2014 would maintain current levels. The program is charged with strengthening positive father-child interaction through education and employment support and provides marriage education and enrichment programs for low-income and recently released inmates.

http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/ofa/programs/healthy-marriage/about

 

B. Eliminate Mandatory Minimum Sentencing:

“[W]e should … [e]liminate mandatory minimum sentences for low-level drug offenses. … To address this, Congress should pass the Justice Safety Valve Act of 2013 and the Smarter Sentencing Act of 2013.”

Reforming America’s Criminal Justice System, page 4

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/reforming-americas-criminal-justice-system

Cost: Unknown.

Note: The Smarter Sentencing Act has been introduced in the form of S. 1410 in the 113th Congress. The bill would give judges more discretion in sentencing those convicted of non-violent offenses. Changes to the law would be retrogressive but inmates would be required to petition for sentence reductions. A current cost estimate is not available.

 

C. Equalize the Crack and Powder Cocaine Disparity:

“[W]e should … [e]liminate the disparity between crack cocaine and powder cocaine. … [The Fair Sentencing Act] was a significant step in the right direction, and Congress should now act to fully correct the disparity.”

Reforming America’s Criminal Justice System, page 5

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/reforming-americas-criminal-justice-system

Cost: -$1 million (first-year savings).

Source: Related legislation has been introduced in the form of H.R. 2372 (113th Congress), the Fairness in Cocaine Sentencing Act of 2013. The bill would eliminate increased penalties for cocaine offenses with regards to the form of cocaine involved. A CBO estimate is available for the version of the bill, H.R. 3245, that was introduced in the 111th Congress.

http://www.cbo.gov/sites/default/files/cbofiles/ftpdocs/105xx/doc10549/hr3245.pdf

 

D. Fully Fund Inmate Drug Treatment Programs:

“[W]e should … [i]ncrease funding for effective drug treatment in prisons. … We must fully fund drug and alcohol treatment programs that use best practices to combat addition.”

Reforming America’s Criminal Justice System, page 6

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/reforming-americas-criminal-justice-system

Cost: $52 million (first-year cost).

Source: Authorizations of Appropriations, FY 2014, Department of Justice.

http://www.justice.gov/jmd/2014summary/pdf/auth-approp.pdf

Note: The Department of Justice (DOJ) provides funding for state governments to develop, implement, and improve substance abuse treatment programs in correctional facilities and to assist community-based aftercare services for probationers and parolees through the Residential Substance Abuse Treatment program. In FY 2013, DOJ spent $10 million on the program, which, according to the DOJ, is authorized to spend $62 million each year. This estimate assumes Mayor Booker advocates full spending for the program.

 

E. Increase Funding to Drug and Community Courts:

“[W]e should … [i]ncrease federal funding for proven, evidence-based programs like drug and community courts, that divert low-level drug offenders from prison.”

Reforming America’s Criminal Justice System, page 3

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/reforming-americas-criminal-justice-system

Cost: $149 million ($745 million over five years).

Source: Related legislation was introduced in the form of H.R. 82 (112th Congress), the Drug Court Reauthorization Act. The bill would have awarded grants to state and local governments to establish or improve drug courts and for the federal government to provide local courts with technical assistance, training, and evaluation. The text of the bill authorizes the spending and NTUF determined the net increase above existing budgetary resources.

 

F. Open More Services to Current and Former Inmates:

“We should … [c]reate an incentive program that fosters the creation of state- and locally-led employment programs for the formerly incarcerated. States where recidivism rates fall as a result of these job programs would be eligible for additional grant funding. … We should fund rapid-attachment to work programs … in cities and states across the country, and develop a mechanism to share best practices. … [We should] assist with ongoing civil legal matters. … [We should] provide state-issued photo identification to the newly released, and provide ongoing access to ID resources for those transitioning.  … [W]e should increase access to opportunity. … We should restructure federal provisions that prohibit non-violent drug offenders with felony drug convictions from ever receiving public assistance, public housing, and access to student loans. … [We should] increase funding for the Second Chance Act. We must promote and support evidence-based reentry initiatives by increasing funding for the Second Chance Act. … [W]e should reduce prison admissions from probation and parole revocations. … At the federal level, we should create financial incentives for states to develop [programs to reward counties that keep former offenders who violate parole under community supervision instead of sending them back to state prison] policies.”

Reforming America’s Criminal Justice System, page 12-13

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/reforming-americas-criminal-justice-system

Cost: -$12 million (-$60 million over five years).

Source: Related legislation was introduced in the form of S. 1231(112th Congress), the Second Chance Reauthorization Act of 2011. The bill would extend the Second Chance program, which provides grants to states to assist ex-offenders in re-entering the workplace. The bill would also provide implementation grants to examine the process for parole, probation, or supervision following the release of prison and for increasing former inmate employment. Due to some of its provisions, CBO determined that it would actually reduce prison operation costs and, relative to budget baselines, would likely result in decreased federal expenditures. A cost estimate is available. http://www.cbo.gov/sites/default/files/cbofiles/attachments/s1231.pdf

 

G. Pass Comprehensive Immigration Reform:

“The [comprehensive] immigration bill recently passed by the Senate would increase the number of annually available H-1B visas from 65,000 to 115,000, with the potential to increase the cap to 180,000 over time. … The Senate bill would help address this problem by increasing labor certification fees for hiring foreign workers, using the additional funds to pay for STEM education in the U.S. We must work to pressure the House of Representatives to pass it.”

Supporting Innovation, Fostering Long Term Job Growth, page 7

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/supporting-innovation

Cost: $20.2 billion ($101 billion over five years).

Source: S. 744, the Border Security, Economic Opportunity, and Immigration Modernization Act, was passed by the Senate in June 2013. The bill would streamline and overhaul the immigration system and increase border security and infrastructure. A CBO estimate of the bill as passed is available.

http://www.cbo.gov/sites/default/files/cbofiles/attachments/s744aspassed.pdf

 

H. Provide More Funding for First Responders:

“… [A]s your Senator[, I] will work to better fund Assistance to Firefighters (AFG) grants, Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response (SAFER) grants, Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS) grants, and do all I can to support the first responders who protect us.”
http://www.corybooker.com/vision/protecting-our-communities

Cost: Unknown.

Source: Related legislation was introduced during the 112th Congress in the form of S. 1549, the American Jobs Act. Subtitle B of Title II authorized $5 billion for grants to support first responders. A CBO cost estimate is available. It is unclear how Mayor Booker would change support for first responders.

http://www.cbo.gov/sites/default/files/cbofiles/attachments/s1549.pdf

 

I. Reduce Violent Crimes:

“[We should] … [r]educe violent crime by expanding funding for proven law enforcement programs, such as ‘Ceasefire.’”

Reforming America’s Criminal Justice System, page 14

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/reforming-americas-criminal-justice-system

Cost: Unknown.

Note: At the state and city levels, Ceasefire programs attempt to reduce gang and gun violence. It is unclear how much funding they currently receive from the federal government for these efforts.

 

J. Seek to End the Use of Private Prisons:

“[W]e should … [w]ork to end the use of private prisons. … [W]e should decrease our investment in private prisons over time. … [W]e should better regulate private prisons. … The [Office of Federal Detention Trustee] OFDT needs sufficient staffing, funding, and regulations to ensure that private prisons are meeting the same standards for health, safety, and services that we require of our federal prisons. But even more, Congress must pass legislation to ensure that the OFDT and the public have access to information about what is happening to our federal prisoners and undocumented immigrants held in private prisons, as this will allow us to adequately assess the most glaring deficiencies in our current system.”

Reforming America’s Criminal Justice System, page 7

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/reforming-americas-criminal-justice-system

Cost: Unknown.

Note: It is impossible to determine the budgetary effects of ending the federal use of private prisons. In the event the criminal code remains the same, the loss of private prisons to house inmates would require the government to spend additional dollars in taking over or building new institutions.


National Security and International Relations: Unknown

A. Combat Sexual Harassment in the Armed Forces:

“[A]s your Senator, I will … [m]ake preventing violence against women in any form, place, or institution a priority, including supporting efforts to address the ongoing crisis in our armed forces”

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/advancing-womens-rights

Cost: Unknown.

Note: Related legislation has been introduced in the form of H.R. 2002 (113th Congress), the Combating Military Sexual Assault Act of 2013. The legislation would provide counseling for victims of sexual assault in the Armed Forces and modify existing penalties for such offenses. A cost estimate is not available.

 

B. Enforce Higher Standards for Trade with China:

“… [O]ur goal should be a level playing field that treats everyone fairly, and that includes cracking down on unfair practices, such as unreasonable market barriers and Intellectual Property theft, that often break China’s commitments to us and the rest of the world.”

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/keeping-america-secure

Cost: Unknown.

Note: Related legislation was introduced in the form of S. 1607 (110th Congress), the Currency Exchange Rate Oversight Reform Act of 2007. The bill would permit the federal government to identify and respond to foreign currencies that have been “fundamentally misaligned” with international exchange rates. The legislation would have applied to major U.S. trading partners, including China. CBO scored the bill as a $4 million annual cost. It is unclear from Mayor Booker’s statement whether he would pursue such a policy.

http://www.cbo.gov/sites/default/files/cbofiles/ftpdocs/85xx/doc8538/s1607.pdf

 

C. Expand Trade with African Nations:

“Expanding the economic pie means creating strong ties with [Africa’s] developing nations. Rather than making these countries dependent on long-term foreign aid, we should focus on increasing trade with them.”

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/keeping-america-secure

Cost: Unknown.

Note: Related legislation has been introduced in the form of S. 718 (113th Congress), the Increasing American Jobs Through Greater Exports to Africa Act of 2013. The bill would expand federal programs to promote exports to Africa. CBO estimated that the bill would cost $15 million over five years to increase staff at federal agencies, to develop a training program for foreign commercial service officers, and to develop and implement a strategy to promote exports. It is unclear whether or not Mayor Booker would support this legislation.

http://www.cbo.gov/sites/default/files/cbofiles/attachments/s718.pdf

 

D. Improve Global Women’s Health:

“[A]s your Senator, I will … [v]igorously pursue improvements in global women’s rights and health.”

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/advancing-womens-rights

Cost: Unknown.

Note: According to the Kaiser Family Foundation, the United States spent $8.9 billion in FY 2012 on global health activities, which includes efforts to improve care for women. In FY 2014, President Obama requested $9 billion. The Global Health Initiative seeks to improve health outcomes by adopting a women, girls, and gender-equity approach to health, institutional support, and medical research and makes up approximately 80 percent, or $7.2 billion in next year’s budget, of the global health budget.

http://kff.org/global-health-policy/fact-sheet/u-s-funding-for-global-health-the-presidents-fy-2014-budget-request/

It is unclear whether Mayor Booker is calling to strengthen programs already in operation or increase funding for these efforts.

 

Miscellaneous: Unknown

A. Encourage Better Parenting:

“The federal government should support the expansion of successful local initiatives like Newark’s Fatherhood Program … .”

Strengthening Competitiveness, Ending Child Poverty, pages 8-9

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/child-poverty

Cost: Unknown.

Note: Related legislation has been introduced in the form of H.R. 2359 (113th Congress), the Julia Carson Responsible Fatherhood and Health Families Act of 2013. The bill would provide funding for grants to promote responsible fatherhood and support low-income families. NTUF scored the version of the bill, H.R. 2193, in the 112th Congress based on budget and CBO data as a $149 million annual cost.

According to Office of Family Assistance under the Department of Health and Human Services, the federal government spent $75 million in FY 2013 on the Responsible Fatherhood Initiative. The funding request for FY 2014 would maintain current outlays. The program is charged with strengthening positive father-child interaction through education and employment support.

http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/ofa/programs/healthy-marriage/about

It is unclear to what degree Mayor Booker would change current fatherhood programs and if such changes would require additional funding.

 

B. Pass Gun Control Measures:

“[My priorities will include p]assing common sense gun safety legislation. It is plainly unacceptable that we don’t have background checks for every gun sale in America … .”

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/protecting-our-communities

Cost: Unknown.

Note: It is unclear from Mayor Booker’s statement how he would allocate or whether he would increase federal funding toward instituting background checks on gun sales.

 

C. Support Single Parent or Grandparent Households:

“[W]e should … [w]ork to support single parent or grandparent households. In Newark, for example, we started a program focused on grandparents raising grandchildren. The federal government should provide funding to support existing programs and incentivize their growth and proliferation.”

Strengthening Competitiveness, Ending Child Poverty, page 9

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/child-poverty

Cost: Unknown.

Note: Due to a lack of specificity, NTUF is unable to determine how Mayor Booker would modify existing federal programs dedicated to supporting single parent or grandparent households.

 

Fiscal Notes:

“To lead our hypercompetitive global economy, we must streamline the tax code and lower the statutory corporate rate … [which] is the highest among all peer countries. A reduction of the corporate tax rate to near 28 percent, along with the elimination of loopholes and tax-avoidance mechanisms, would bring the United States in line with its peers.”

Improving the American Business Climate, page 3

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/improving-the-american-business-climate

“We can start to streamline the tax code, broaden the corporate tax base, and level the playing field, by:

  1. Removing deductions for businesses that move jobs overseas;
  2. Reevaluating the accelerated depreciation schedule to ensure it balances taxpayer cost with business needs;
  3. Exploring phasing out the “last in, first out” accounting method in a way that is sensitive to our ongoing economic recovery;
  4. Ending costly, preferential tax breaks for oil and other fossil fuel companies.”

Improving the American Business Climate, page 3-4

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/improving-the-american-business-climate

“We can start by considering the following proposals:

  1. Disallowing deductions on deferred foreign income to encourage repatriation;
  2. Imposing a minimum tax on all income earned by foreign subsidiaries;
  3. Eliminating the contract manufacturing exemption to Subpart F of the tax code;
  4. Pushing for international tax transparency rules;
  5. Clarifying the transfer price of intangible assets;
  6. Promoting repatriation of current foreign cash holdings in ways that ensure investments in American jobs and infrastructure. “

Improving the American Business Climate, page 4

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/improving-the-american-business-climate

“We can leverage the [T]ax [C]ode to create stability for businesses and encourage job creation by:

  1. Increasing the Domestic Production Activities Deduction so that the corporate tax rate for manufacturers is 25 percent, with additional incentives for advanced manufacturing;
  2. Making permanent the R&D tax credit and expanding the alternative simplified research credit from 14 to 20 percent;
  3. Permanently extending the New Markets Tax Credits Program.”

Improving the American Business Climate, page 4-5

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/improving-the-american-business-climate

“[We should] … [p]ermanently extend increased expensing levels for small businesses … [,] expand the use of cash accounting … [, and] increase the deduction limit for start-up expenses.”

Improving the American Business Climate, page 8

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/improving-the-american-business-climate

“[W]e should … [e]nsure that low-income families are not penalized for saving for college. … Congress should extend [low- and moderate-income family asset limit exemptions for welfare programs] to other social programs to ensure that low-income families are rewarded for saving for college, while also ensuring that there are not loopholes that benefit wealthier families.”

Bringing Opportunity Within Reach: Renewing Our Commitment To Quality And Affordable Higher Education For All Americans, page 3

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/bringing-opportunity

“Congress should pass legislation to make permanent and expand the alternative simplified research credit (ASC), which offers a streamlined process for computing R&D credit. Expanding the ASC from 14 percent to 20 percent would stimulate private sector investment in R&D and produce long-lasting economic benefits.”

Supporting Innovation, Fostering Long Term Job Growth, page 4

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/supporting-innovation

“[W]e should … [b]olster earned income tax credit (EITC) by reducing its “marriage penalty,” in which a single parent’s credit may decrease once she or he marries and files a joint tax return. Expanding the eligibility range by$5,000 for married filers would substantially reduce the penalty.”
Strengthening Competitiveness, Ending Child Poverty, page 7

http://www.corybooker.com/vision/policy-papers/child-poverty