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How Have the Top and Bottom Income Tax Brackets Changed Over Time?

                            Historical Income Tax Rates & Brackets

 Tax Rates 1
 Bottom bracketTop bracket
Calendar YearRate
(percent)
Taxable Income Up toRate
(percent)

Taxable Income over

 
201710 2$18,55039.6$470,700
201610 2$18,55039.6$466,950
201510 2$18,45039.6$464,850
201410 2$18,15039.6$457,600
201310 2$17,85039.6$450,000
201210 2$17,40035$388,350
201110 2$17,00035$379,150
201010 2$16,75035$373,650
200910 2$16,70035$372,950
200810 2$16,05035$357,700
200710 2$15,65035$349,700
200610 2$15,10035$336,550
200510 2$14,60035$326,450
200410 2$14,30035$319,100
2003 310 2$14,00035$311,950
200210 2$12,00038.6$307,050
200115 2$45,20039.1$297,350
200015 2$43,85039.6$288,350
199915 2$43,05039.6$283,150
199815 2$42,35039.6$278,450
199715 2$41,20039.6$271,050
199615 2$40,10039.6$263,750
199515 2$39,00039.6$256,500
199415 2$38,00039.6$250,000
199315 2$36,90039.6$250,000
199215 2$35,80031$86,500
199115 2$34,00031$82,150
199015 2$32,45028 4$32,450
198915 2$30,95028 4$30,950
198815 2$29,75028 4$29,750
198711 2$3,00038.5$90,000
198611 2$2,27050$171,580
198511 2$2,18050$165,480
198411 2$2,10050$159,000
198311 2$2,10050$106,000
198212 2$2,10050$106,000
198113.825 2 5$2,10069.125 6 5$212,000
1979-8014 2$2,10070 6$212,000
1972-7814 2$1,00070 6$200,000
197114$1,00070 6$200,000
197014$1,00071.75 7$200,000
196914$1,00077 7$200,000
196814$1,00075.25 7$200,000
1965-6714$1,00070$200,000
196416$1,00077$400,000
1954-6320$4,00091 8$400,000
1952-5322.2$4,00092 8$400,000
195120.4$4,00091 8$400,000
195017.4$4,00091 8$400,000
1948-4916.6$4,00082.13 8$400,000
1946-4719$2,00086.45 8$200,000
1944-4523$2,00094 8$200,000
1942-43 919 10$2,00088$200,000
194110 10$2,00081$5,000,000
19404.4 10$4,00081.1$5,000,000
1936-394 10$4,00079$5,000,000
1934-354 10$4,00063$1,000,000
1932-334$4,00063$1,000,000
1930-311 11$4,00025$100,000
19294 11$4,00024$100,000
1925-281 11$4,00025$100,000
19241.5 11$4,00046$500,000
19233$4,00056$200,000
19224$4,00056$200,000
19214$4,00073$1,000,000
1919-204$4,00073$1,000,000
19186$4,00077$1,000,000
19172$2,00067$2,000,000
19162$20,00015$2,000,000
1913-151$20,0007$500,000
1 Taxable income excludes zero bracket amount from 1977 through 1986. Rates shown apply only to married persons filing joint returns beginning in 1948. Does not include either the add on minimum tax on preference items (1970-1982) or the alternative minimum tax (1979-present). Also, does not include the effects of the various tax benefit phase-outs (e.g. the personal exemption phase-out). From 1922 through 1986 and from 1991 forward, lower rates applied to long-term capital gains.
2 Beginning in 1975, a refundable earned-income credit is allowed for low-income individuals.
3 Rates for 2003 are after enactment of the Jobs and Growth Tax Relief Reconciliation Act. Prior to enactment the rates were 10% up to $12,000 and 38.6% on amounts over $311,950.
4 The benefit of the first rate bracket is eliminated by an increased rate above certain thresholds. The phase-out range of the benefit of the first rate bracket was as follows: Taxable income between $71,900 and $149,250 in 1988; taxable income between $74,850 and $155,320 in 1989; and taxable income between $78,400 and $162,770 in 1990. The phase-out of the benefit the first rate bracket was repealed for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1990. This added 5 percentage points to the marginal rate for those by the phaseout, producing a 33 percent effective rate.
5 After tax credit is 1.25 percent against regular tax.
6 Earned income was subject to maximum marginal rates of 60 percent in 1971 and 50 percent from 1972 through 1981.
7 Includes surcharge of 7.5 percent in 1968, 10 percent in 1969, and 2.6 percent in 1970.
8 Subject to the following maximum effective rate limitations: [year and maximum rate (in percent)] 1944-45 –90; 1946-47 –85.5; 1948-49 –77.0; 1950 –87.0; 1951 –87.2; 1952-53 –88.0; 1954-63 –87.0.
9 Exclusive of Victory Tax.
10 After earned-income deduction equal to 10 percent of earned income.
11 After earned-income deduction equal to 25 percent of earned income.
Sources: Joint Committee on Taxation, "Overview of Present Law and Economic Analysis Relating to Marginal Tax Rates and the President’s Individual Income Tax Rate Proposals" (JCX-6-01), March 6, 2001, and Congressional Research Service, "Statutory Individual Income Tax Rates and Other Elements of the Tax System: 1988 through 2008," (RL34498) May 21, 2008, ttp://www.irs.gov/Forms-&-Pubs.